Saturday, April 17, 2010

April in Baha'i History

Shine out like the day-star, be unresting as the sea; even as the clouds of heaven, shed ye life upon field and hill, and like unto April winds, blow freshness through those human trees, and bring them to their blossoming.

(Abdu'l-Baha, Selections from the Writings of Abdu'l-Baha, p. 245)

1846 - Vahid meets the Bab

In one of his writings Vahid gives the date of his meeting with the Báb in Shiraz as the month of Jamadiyu'l-Avval in the year 1262 A.H. (April-May 1846). (Adib Taherzadeh, The Revelation of Baha'u'llah v 1, p. 326)

1853 - Baha'u'llah arrives in Tihran

1863 - Baha'u'llah departs for Istanbul

Bahá'u'lláh arrived in Baghdad from Tihran in April, 1853 and departed for Istanbul in April, 1863. (Ustad Muhammad-'Aliy-i Salmani, My Memories of Baha'u'llah, p. 144)

1939 - the Guardian wrote:

And in April 1939 he had written: "the sands of a moribund civilization are inexorably running out". (Ruhiyyih Khanum, The Guardian of the Baha'i Faith, p. 71)

• April 1948 The name Bahá'í International Community is used for the first time for the global non-governmental organization involving the eight National Spiritual Assemblies existing at that time.

• Apr 1953 Formal dedication of the house of worship at Wilmette, Illinois, designed by French-Canadian architect Jean-Louis Bourgeois.

April 17th in Baha'i History

Abdul-Baha in America

17 April 1912 Abdul-Baha - Talk at Hotel Ansonia Broadway and Seventy-third Street, New York

17 April 1912 - Abdul-Baha - Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney 780 West End Avenue, New York

April 16th in Baha'i History

Abdul-Baha in America

1912: News of the sinking of the RMS Titanic breaks; After praying for the deceased, the friends offered thanks that ‘Abdu’l-Bahá had not traveled on that ship.

16 April 1912 - Abdul-Baha - Talk at Hotel Ansonia to Baha’i’ Friends of New Jersey Broadway and Seventy-third Street, New York

Abdul-Baha Plans his visit to the Bowery Mission

16 April 1912 - This morning the Master agreed to speak at the Bowery Mission.
"I want to give them some money," He said to me. "I am in love with
the poor. How many poor men go to the Mission?"
"About three hundred, my Lord."
"Take this bill to the bank, Juliet, and change it into quarters,"
and He drew from His pocket a thousand-franc note.
"Have them put the quarters in a bag. Keep the money and meet Me at the Mission with it."
He handed another thousand-franc note, with the same instructions,

to Edward Getsinger.
(The Diary of Juliet Thompson pg. 53)

Tuesday, April 16, 1912 - [New York]

From early morning until late afternoon many believers and seekers came by requesting permission to see `Abdu'l-Bahá. Many sat on the porch waiting their turn and were extremely grateful if they could see Him for just a few minutes and be personally addressed by Him.  (Mahmud's Diary

April 15th in Baha'i History

The Shrine of Baha'u'llah

15-20 April 1890 Edward Granville Browne of Cambridge University, interviews Bahá'u'lláh four times and visits with 'Abdu'l-Bahá at Bahjí.

It was in that same mansion that the distinguished Orientalist, Prof. E. G. Browne of Cambridge, was granted his four successive interviews with Bahá'u'lláh, during the five days he was His guest at Bahji (April 15-20, 1890), interviews immortalized by the Exile's historic declaration that "these fruitless strifes, these ruinous wars shall pass away and the 'Most Great Peace' shall come." "The face of Him on Whom I gazed," is the interviewer's memorable testimony for posterity, "I can never forget, though I cannot describe it. Those piercing eyes seemed to read one's very soul; power and authority sat on that ample brow.... No need to ask in whose presence I stood, as I bowed myself before one who is the object of a devotion and love which kings might envy and emperors sigh for in vain." "Here," the visitor himself has testified, "did I spend five most memorable days, during which I enjoyed unparalleled and unhoped-for opportunities of holding intercourse with those who are the fountain-heads of that mighty and wondrous spirit, which works with invisible but ever-increasing force for the transformation and quickening of a people who slumber in a sleep like unto death. It was, in truth, a strange and moving experience, but one whereof I despair of conveying any save the feeblest impression."
(Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 193)

Abdul-Baha in America

15 April 1912 Abdul- Baha - Talk at Home of Mountfort Mills 327 West End Avenue, New York

Monday, April 15, 1992 [New York]

The Master was shown several newspapers that had published His picture and articles about His talks and yesterday's meetings

Abdul- Baha said: Up to the present time no one has traveled, with a purpose like ours, from Persia to America . . . Ours may be said to be the first voyage of Easterners to America.'   (Mahmud's Diary)

April 14th in Baha'i History

The former Baha'i Reading Room in Schenectady NY.

Abdul- Baha in America

14 April 1912 Talk at Church of the Ascension Fifth Avenue and Tenth Street, New York

14 April 1912 Talk at Union Meeting of Advanced Thought Centers Carnegie Lyceum West Fifty-seventh Street, New York

Sunday, April 14, 1912 [New York]

The Master went to the Church of the Ascension. This was the first church in America to be honored by the presence of the Master. 

As He left the church, group after group rushed towards Him. The Bahá'ís sang `Alláh-u-Abhá' and many asked for His blessings. From among the crowd a woman's voice was heard. Tears poured from her eyes as she held fast to the hem of the Master's robe. She was so overcome she could not speak. The Master showered her with His love and kindness and calmed her with loving words of assurance. It was a great day and a most impressive meeting. Not one of the two thousand people was disappointed and everyone left smiling in warm appreciation. (Mahmud's Diary)

The Sinking of the Titanic - Abdul-Baha comment

Early the next spring He started out for America, despite continuing ill health. Once across the Mediterranean He might have sailed on the Titanic. Some of His fellow-travelers, on the Cedric with Him as far as Naples, urged Him to book passage on what would be the maiden voyage of that magnificent luxury liner which the whole world was watching, a ship of which it was said 'even God could not sink it'. This would have been a logical choice, but later He told the believers why He did not sail on her: 'My heart did not prompt me to do so.'

Instead, He remained on the Cedric, and she docked in New York April 11. On April 14, in the night, the Titanic hit an iceberg off Newfoundland and went down with an awesome loss of life, 1500 people, and today she lies on the ocean floor.[39] 'When I think of them,' 'Abdu'l-Bahá said, 'I am very sad indeed. But when I consider this calamity in another aspect, I am consoled by the realization that the worlds of God are infinite; that though they were deprived of this existence they have other opportunities in the life beyond... They were called away from the temporary and transferred to the eternal ... they now partake of a joy and happiness far more abiding and real; for they have hastened to the Kingdom of God.'[40]

[39. See Walter Lord, A Night to Remember. Also Star of the West, April 28, 1912 and October 16, 1913.] [40. 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Promulgation, p. 47.] (Marzieh Gail, Arches of the Years, p. 78)

1932 - Reading the Tablet of Ahmad

"The Tablet of Ahmad was revealed by Bahá'u'lláh to be read when one feels himself in exceptionally difficult circumstances. There is nothing obligatory about its use, and every person has to decide for himself whether he desires to learn it by heart or not..."

(From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to the Bahá'ís of Kenosha, April 14, 1932)
(Compilations, Lights of Guidance, p. 483)

1966 - The passing of Jessie Revell

Jessie E. Revell (March 231891 - April 141966) was a member of the International Bahá’í Council serving as Treasurer. Upon her passing the Universal House of Justice cabled the following message:


 Universal House of Justice (1996). Messages from the Universal House of Justice, 1963-1986. p. 76.

April 13th in Baha'i History

1887 - Baha'u'llah uses the term Hand of the Cause for the first time

Towards the end of His life He revealed a Tablet to each one of these souls, designating them as 'Hands of the Cause of God'. As far as we can gather, the first time He used the term 'Hand of the Cause' to refer to an individual with certain responsibilities was in a Tablet revealed in honour of Ibn-i-Asdaq on 19 Rajab 1304 (13 April 1887). Perhaps all three Hands of the Cause were appointed around the same time.

(Adib Taherzadeh, The Revelation of Baha'u'llah v 4, p. 277)

13 April 1912 Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Morten 141 East Twenty-first Street, New York

1912 - Juliet Thompson meets Abdul-Baha

It was on Saturday, 13 April, that Mamma and I visited the Master. On Friday He had called me early, asking me to meet Him at the MacNutts'.

I shall never cease to see Him as He looked speaking from their stairway, standing below a stained glass window in a ray of sunlight, the powerful head, the figure in its flowing robes, outlined in light. The Master has a strange quality of beautifying His environment, of throwing a glamour over it and blotting out the ugly. The MacNutts' house is ugly; the one redeeming feature of that stairway, its window. All I saw as the Master stood there was Himself, the window, the ray of light. His words lifted my soul on wings! (Diary of Juliet Thompson)

1919 - The Passing of Phoebe Hearst

For more information on this early American believer  Click here And here

April 12th in Baha'i History

12 April 1912 Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Howard MacNutt 935 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York

12 April 1912 Talk at Studio of Miss Phillips 39 West Sixty-seventh Street, New York

1954 - The Guardian Accepts the bid to erect the Obelisk where the future House of Worship will be built on Mt. Carmel


Even before the site for the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkar of the Holy Land was purchased, Shoghi Effendi knew that it would be impossible to erect the edifice for many years to come. He planned therefore to place a marker in the middle of the land to indicate the hallowed spot on which the Temple would rise some time in the future. He sent word to me to ask my idea of what would be an appropriate manner to mark and celebrate such a future enterprise. I answered that the Romans used to celebrate men and events by erecting either a column or an obelisk, many examples being still visible in the Roman Forum and throughout the Eternal City. His decision was in favour of an obelisk, and a simple drawing was sent to me to secure an estimate of cost which was requested from four different firms. The choice fell upon the firm of Enrico Pandolfini, of Pietrasanta, whose bid was the most reasonable and was accepted by Shoghi Effendi on 12 April 1954. A final project was then prepared by Professor Ugo Mazzei, the architect of that firm, which the Guardian approved on 29 April by cablegram

(Ugo Giachery, Shoghi Effendi - Recollections, p. 170)

1982 - Martyrdom of Mr Ihsanu'llah Khayyami of Urumiyyih

After a few months of imprisonment and intense but unsuccessful pressure to recant his Faith, Mr Khayyami, a staunch believer of humble means, was executed on 12 April 1982.

(The Universal House of Justice, Messages 1963 to 1986, p. 539)


(The Universal House of Justice, Messages 1963 to 1986, p. 540)

April 11th in Baha'i History

11 Apr 1912 'Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in New York City at the request of the American Bahá'ís.

11 April 1912 Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney 780 West End Avenue, New York

1916 - Tablet of the Divine Plan revealed:

TABLET TO THE BAHÁ'ÍS OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA Revealed on April 11, 1916, in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's room at the house in Bahji, and addressed to the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada. (Abdu'l-Baha, Tablets of the Divine Plan, p. 37)

1922 - Guardian receives word of Jahrom martyrdoms

April 11th, from Shiraz, which badly stated:v"Twelve friends in Jahrom martyred agitation may extend elsewhere,"to which he replied the same day, "Horrified sudden calamity.Suspend activities. Appeal central authorities. Convey relativesvtenderest sympathy". He also wired that same day to Tihran avmessage so significant of the spirit of the Faith that its conjunction with the events in Jahrum cannot be ignored: "I earnestly request all believers Persia Turkistan Caucasus participate whole-heartedly in renewal Spiritual Assemblies election. No true Bahá'í can stand aside. Results should be promptly forwarded Holy Land through central Assemblies communicate immediately with every centre. Proceed cautiously. Imploring Divine assistance." The following day, having received a more detailed wire from Shiraz advising that the chief instigator of the agitation there had been arrested and giving certain suggestions, Shoghi Effendi telegraphed Tihran: "Grief-stricken Jahrom martyrdom. Convey His Majesty on behalf all Bahá'ís and myself our profound appreciation his prompt intervention and our earnest entreaty to inflict immediate punishment on perpetrators of such atrocious crime. Urge all Persian Assemblies send similar message." It is a slight, but significant indication of his mental state, that in the first cables he spells "Jahrom" phonetically, but later switches to the transliterated "Jahrum". (Ruhiyyih Khanum, The Guardian of the Baha'i Faith, p. 36)

April 10th in Baha'i History

1848: The Báb is transfered to the fortress of Chihríq by orders of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí

Secret agents, however, charged to watch Ali Khan, informed Haji Mirza Aqasi of the turn events were taking, whereupon he immediately decided to transfer the Báb to the fortress of Chihriq (about April 10, 1848), surnamed by Him the Jabal-i-Shadid (the Grievous Mountain).

(Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 19)

1854: Bahá’u’lláh retreats to the Sulaymaniyah mountains within Kurdistan

Suddenly, and without informing any one even among the members of His own family, on the 12th of Rajab 1270 A.H. (April 10, 1854), He departed, accompanied by an attendant, a Muhammadan named Abu'l-Qasim-i-Hamadani, to whom He gave a sum of money, instructing him to act as a merchant and use it for his own purposes. Shortly after, that servant was attacked by thieves and killed, and Bahá'u'lláh was left entirely alone in His wanderings through the wastes of Kurdistan, a region whose sturdy and warlike people were known for their age-long hostility to the Persians, whom they regarded as seceders from the Faith of Islam, and from whom they differed in their outlook, race and language.

(Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 119)

April 9th in Baha'i History

1848: The Báb is removed from the fortress of Máh-Kú by orders of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí

'Abdu'l-Bahá states that the Báb's incarceration in the castle of Mah-Ku lasted nine months. According to Nabil-i-A'zam, on the twentieth day after Naw-Ruz (April 9th 1848), He left that mountain fastness on the Russian and Turkish frontiers.(11)

(H.M. Balyuzi, The Bab - The Herald of the Day of Days, p. 132)

1913 - Abdul-Baha Travels to Budapest

On March 30 He traveled to Stuttgart, and from there proceeded, on April 9, to Budapest, visited Vienna nine days later, returned to Stuttgart on April 25, and to Paris on May first, where He remained until June 12, sailing the following day, on the S.S. Himalaya from Marseilles bound for Egypt, arriving in Port Said four days later, where after short visits to Isma'iliyyih and Abuqir, and a prolonged stay in Ramleh, He returned to Haifa, concluding His historic journeys on December 5, 1913.

(Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 281)

Wednesday, April 7, 2010

April 8th in Baha'i History

8 Apr 1853 Bahá'u'lláh arrives in Baghdád.
1883 - Birth of Elizabeth Hopper, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh named for pioneering to the Madeira Islands

1916 - Tablet of the Divine Plan Revealed

TABLET TO THE BAHÁ'ÍS OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA Revealed on April 8, 1916, in the garden outside the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh, and addressed to the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada (Abdu'l-Baha, Tablets of the Divine Plan, p. 29)

1922 - On April 8th the Greatest Holy Leaf wrote a general letter to the friends.

She first acknowledges the letters of allegiance they have sent and says Shoghi Effendi is counting upon their co-operation in spreading the Message; the Bahá'í world must from now on be linked through the Spiritual Assemblies and local questions must be referred to them. She then goes on to say: "Since the ascension of our Beloved 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Shoghi Effendi has been moved so deeply ... that he has sought the necessary quiet in which to meditate upon the vast task ahead of him, and it is to accomplish this that he has temporarily left these regions. During his absence he has appointed me as his representative, and while he is occupied in this great endeavour, the family of 'Abdu'l-Bahá is assured that you will all strive to advance triumphantly the Cause of Bahá'u'lláh..." The typewritten letter in English is signed in Persian "Bahá'íyyih" and sealed with her seal.
(Ruhiyyih Khanum, The Guardian of the Baha'i Faith, p. 19)

April 7th in Baha'i History

1887: Horace Holley, prominent Bahá’í and Hand of the Cause is born in Torrington, Connecticut

1922 - The Greatest Holy Leaf Reporsts the Guardian has left the Holy Land to recuperate.

He appointed a body of nine people to act tentatively as an Assembly and we find that on April 7,1922, this body enters in its records that a letter has been received from the Greatest Holy Leaf in which she states that "the Guardian of the Cause of God, the Chosen Branch, the Leader of the people of Baha, Shoghi Effendi, under the weight of sorrows and boundless grief, has been forced to leave here for a while in order to rest and recuperate, and then return to the Holy Land to render his services and discharge his responsibilities." (Ruhiyyih Khanum, The Guardian of the Baha'i Faith, p. 19)

Monday, April 5, 2010

April 6th in Baha'i History

1954 - Guardian directs the Hands to appoint Auxiliary Boards

A significant development in the unfoldment of the institution of the Hands of the Cause took place when the Guardian directed the Hands to appoint Auxiliary Boards in each continent of the globe to act as their deputies and advisers. He announced this decision in a cablegram on 6 April 1954.

(Adib Taherzadeh, The Child of the Covenant, p. 335)

1954 - The Guardian calls for the Initiation of Continental Funds

As to the expenses of the institution itself, in a message dated 6 April 1954, the Guardian called for the initiation of five Continental Bahá'í Funds. These Funds, now well established, support the activities of the Counsellors and their auxiliaries -- their travels and their administrative expenses -- and are managed each by one member of the Board appointed the Trustee of the Continental Fund by the Universal House of Justice.

(The Universal House of Justice, The Institution of the Counsellors, p. 14)

April 5th in Baha'i History

1916 - Tablet of the Divine Plan Revealed

TABLET TO THE BAHÁ'ÍS OF CANADA AND GREENLAND Revealed on April 5, 1916, in the garden adjacent to the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh, and addressed to the Bahá'ís of Canada -- Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon, Mackenzie, Keewatin, Ungava, Franklin Islands -- and Greenland. (Abdu'l-Baha, Tablets of the Divine Plan, p. 25)

1922 - Shoghi Effendi left Haifa for Europe, on April 5th, accompanied by his eldest cousin. (Ruhiyyih Khanum, The Guardian of the Baha'i Faith, p. 19)

1942 - the greatest of all battles raging in the world today is the spiritual battle.

If we could perceive the true reality of things we would see that the greatest of all battles raging in the world today is the spiritual battle. If the believers like yourself, young and eager and full of life, desire to win laurels for true and undying heroism, then let them join in the spiritual battle -- whatever their physical occupation may be -- which involves the very soul of man. The hardest and the noblest task in the world today is to be a true Bahá'í; this requires that we defeat not only the current evils prevailing all over the world, but the weaknesses, attachments to the past, prejudices, and selfishnesses that may be inherited and acquired within our own characters; that we give forth a shining and incorruptible example to our fellow-men.

(5 April 1942 to an individual believer) Letter on behalf of Shoghi Effendi

(Compilations, The Compilation of Compilations vol. I, p. 381)

April 4th in Baha'i History

1923 - Birth of Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir, Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh

1973 - Baha'i view of Strikes

As to Participation in strikes

"As to participation in strikes, when one of the believers who was employed in a factory as supervisor to labourers and who felt that a strike was likely at the factory asked the Guardian what the Bahá'í attitude should be if a strike were called, the Guardian's secretary in a letter dated June 30th 1937 wrote on his behalf:

"With regard to your question concerning the Bahá'í attitude towards labour problems; these cannot assuredly be solved, 'Abdu'l-Bahá tells us, through the sheer force of physical violence. Non-cooperation too, even though not accompanied by acts of violence, is ineffective. The conflict between labour and capital can best be solved through the peaceful and constructive methods of cooperation and of consultation.

"The Bahá'ís, therefore, are advised to avoid, as much as they can, getting mixed in labour strikes and trouble, and particularly to desist from all acts of physical violence which indeed run counter to the very spirit of the Cause. The Faith of Bahá'u'lláh stands for peace, harmony, and cooperation between the individuals and nations of the world."

(From letter on behalf of the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of Luxembourg, April 4, 1973)  4

(Compilations, Lights of Guidance, p. 426)

2006 - Egyptian administrative court recognizes the independence of the Bahá’í Faith

Friday, April 2, 2010

April 3rd in Baha'i History

1867 - Petition to assist in getting Baha'u'llah released from prison presented to the United States.

In 1867 the considerable number of Bahá'ís remaining in Baghdad, four years after Bahá'u'lláh's exile to Constantinople [Istanbul] and hence to Adrianople [Edirne], petitioned the United States Congress for assistance for Bahá'u'lláh's release and for assistance for the Bahá'ís in general. The twenty-four line petition was signed with ringstone emblems by 53 Bahá'ís in Baghdad on March 16, 1867. It reached the United States Consul General's office in Beirut, Syria on April 3, 1867*.

(Misc Baha'i, Petition from Baghdad Baha'is to US)

1961 - Death of Hand of the Cause of God Corinne True

April 2nd in Baha'i History

1925 - Teaching

I do hope your passionate fervour, your mature experience and the ardour of your love will accomplish a great deal among the higher-class people with whom you associate. The Cause must capture the heights, and I look to you as the beloved and enthusiastic apostle of 'Abdu'l-Bahá to win to the Cause, cultured and capable souls. Be not disheartened and be assured of my constant loving prayers for the success of your much-valued efforts.

(In the handwriting of Shoghi Effendi, appended to a letter dated 2 April 1925 written on his behalf)

(Compilations, The Compilation of Compilations vol II, p. 268)

2004 - Death of Ola Pawlowska, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh named for pioneering to St. Pierre and Miquelon.

April 1st in Baha'i History

1 Apr 1847 Bahá'u'lláh sends a letter and gifts to the Báb.


Revealed on April 1, 1916, in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's room at the house in Bahji, addressed to the Bahá'ís of eleven Western States of the United States: New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, Nevada, California, Wyoming, Utah, Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Washington.
(Abdu'l-Baha, Tablets of the Divine Plan, p. 19)

1925 - The Guardian wires the Zionist Executive Committee

In 1925 the Zionist Executive in Jerusalem invited him to attend an event in connection with the establishment of a university there. Shoghi Effendi wired them, on 1 April:
 "Appreciate kind invitation regret inability to be present. Bahá'ís hope and pray the establishment of this seat of learning may contribute to the revival of a land of hallowed memories for us all and for which 'Abdu'l-Bahá cherished the highest hopes." 

To this message they replied in cordial terms: "Zionists Executive much appreciate your friendly message and good wishes we trust that newly established university may contribute not only advancement of science and learning but also to better understanding between men which ideal is so well served by Bahá'ís". Twenty-five years later the tie established is still there: "The Hebrew University was very gratified indeed to receive your check for 100 [pounds}.- as the contribution from His Eminence Shoghi Effendi Rabbani towards the work of this institution... We were happy to know that His Eminence is aware of the important work that the University is doing and to receive this generous token of appreciation from him..."
(Ruhiyyih Khanum, The Priceless Pearl, p. 272)

March 31st in Baha'i History

1930 - The Difference for Apostles of Baha'u'llah

. . Unlike the Dispensation of Christ, unlike the Dispensation of Muhammad, unlike all the Dispensations of the past, the apostles of Bahá'u'lláh in every land, wherever they labor and toil, have before them in clear, in unequivocal and emphatic language, all the laws, the regulations, the principles, the institutions, the guidance, they require for the prosecution and consummation of their task." March 31, 1930.  (Shoghi Effendi, Extracts from the USBN)

1938 - Accepting to Suffer for Each Other's Sake

"With reference to your question as to whether individuals can help each other by accepting to suffer for each other's sake. Surely such sacrifice for our fellow-humans can have helpful results. This law of sacrifice operates in our own lives, as well as in the lives of the Divine Manifestations."

(From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual believer, March 31, 1938) (Compilations, Lights of Guidance, p. 118)

31 March 1966 Eduardo Duarte Vieira died in prison 

in Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea-Bissau) after months of harassment and beatings because of his faith. He was designated the first African martyr.

31 March 1980 - Release of a Compilation on the Importance of Prayer, Meditation, and the Devotional Attitude